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Urology

Urology kategorisinde güncel sağlık bilgileri yer alıyor.

Acquired Renal Cystic Disease (ARCD)

Acquired Renal Cystic Disease (ARCD)
Cystic degenerative disease of the kidney with cysts visualized on CT scan. By definition this is an acquired condition, as opposed to adult polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) which is inherited (in an autosomal dominant fashion). It is predominantly associated with chronic and end-stage renal failure (originally, it was thought to specifically …

Acute Pyelonephritis

Acute Pyelonephritis
A clinical diagnosis based on the presence of fever, flank pain, and tenderness, often with an elevated white count. It may affect one or both kidneys. There are usually accompanying symptoms suggestive of a lower UTI (frequency, urgency, suprapubic pain, urethral burning or pain on voiding) responsible for the ascending infection which resulted in …

Adult Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD)

Autosomal Dominant (Adult) Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD)
Definition
Autosomal dominant inherited disorder leading to the development of multiple expanding renal parenchymal cysts.
Epidemiology
Incidence is 0.1%; 95% are bilateral. Symptoms manifest in the 4th decade. ADPKD accounts for 10% of all cases of renal failure.
Pathology
The kidneys reach an enormous size due to multiple fluid-filled …

Anterior Urethral Injuries

Anterior Urethral Injuries : These injuries are uncommon.
History and examination
The patient usually presents with difficulty in passing urine and frank haematuria in the context of a straddle injury. Blood may be present at the end of the penis and a haematoma around the site of the rupture. If Buck’s fascia has been ruptured (the …

Artificial Urinary Sphincter (AUS)

İncontinence the artificial urinary sphincter
The artificial urinary sphincter (AUS; AMS800â„¢) consists of an inflatable cuff placed, via a lower abdominal incision (midline or Pfannenstiel), around the bladder neck in both men or women or the bulbar urethra in men, a pressure-regulating balloon placed extraperitoneally, and an activating pump placed in the scrotum or labia majora. …

Benign Renal Masses

Benign Renal Masses
The most common (70%) are simple cysts, present in >50% of >50-year-olds. Rarely symptomatic, treatment by aspiration or laparoscopic de-roofing is seldom considered.
Most benign renal tumours are rare; the two most clinically important are oncocytoma and angiomyolipoma.
Oncocytoma
This is uncommon, accounting for 3 – 7% of renal tumours. Males are twice …

Bladder Cancer

Bladder Cancer: Epidemiology and Aetiology
Bladder cancer is the second most common urological malignancy, accounting for 4973 deaths in the UK in 2001. This represents 3% of all cancer deaths. Incidence is ~13,000 per year, indicating that the majority of patients have curable or controllable disease.
Risk factors
– Men are 2.5 times more likely to …

Bladder Injuries

Bladder Injuries
Situations in which the bladder may be injured
TURBT , cystoscopic bladder biopsy, TURP, cystolitholapaxy, penetrating trauma to the lower abdomen or back, caesarian section (especially as an emergency), blunt pelvic trauma in association with pelvic fracture or  minor  trauma in the inebriated patient, rapid deceleration injury (e.g. seat belt injury with full bladder …

Bladder Stones

Bladder Stones – Composition
Struvite (i.e. they are infection stones) or uric acid (in non-infected urine).
Adults
Bladder calculi are predominantly a disease of men aged >50 and with bladder outlet obstruction due to BPE. They also occur in the chronically catheterized patient (e.g. spinal cord injury patients), where the chance of developing a bladder stone …

BPH Benign Prostate Hypertrophy Treatment

BPH Benign Prostate Hypertrophy Treatment: alpha blockers
The rationale for  α  blocker therapy in BPH
As described earlier, BPO is caused partly by  α 1 adrenoceptor mediated prostatic smooth muscle contraction, and this is the rationale for  α  adrenoceptor blocker treatment for symptomatic BPO.
There are two broad subtypes of  α  adrenoceptor (AR)  α 1 and  …

Chronic Pyelonephritis

Chronic Pyelonephritis
This is a confusing term. It can be a radiological or pathological diagnosis or description. The appearance pathologically or radiologically is one of renal scarring. The scarring can be due to previous infection or it can occur from the long-term effects of reflux (with or without superimposed infection). A child with reflux, particularly where …

Cystic Renal Disease

Cystic Renal Disease: Simple Cysts
Simple cysts are single or multiple renal  masses  ranging from a few to many centimetres in diameter that do not communicate with any part of the nephron or the renal pelvis. They are mainly confined to the renal cortex, are filled with clear fluid, and contain a membrane composed of a …

Epididymitis & Orchitis

Epididymitis & Orchitis
This is an inflammatory condition of the epididymis, often involving the testis, and caused by bacterial infection. It has a acute onsent and a clinical course lasting <6weeks. It presents with pain, swelling, and tenderness of the epididymis. It should be distinguished from chronic epididymitis where there is longstanding pain in the epididymis, …

Erection & Ejaculation

Erection & Ejaculation
Innervation
Autonomic: sympathetic nerves originating from T11-L2, and parasympathetic nerves originating from S2-4, join to form the pelvic plexus. The cavernosal nerves are branches of pelvic plexus (i.e. parasympathetic) that innervate the penis. Parasympathetic stimulation causes erection; sympathetic activity causes ejaculation and detumescence (loss of erection).
Somatic: somatosensory (afferent) information travels via the …

Extracorporeal Lithotripsy (ESWL)

Stone fragmentation techniques: Extracorporeal Lithotripsy (ESWL)
The technique of focusing externally generated shock waves at a target (the stone). First used in humans in 1980. The first commercial lithotriptor, the Dornier HM3, became available in 1983.13 ESWL revolutionized kidney and ureteric stone treatment.
Three methods of shock wave generation are commercially available—electrohydraulic, electromagnetic, and piezoelectric.
Electrohydraulic …