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Pharmacology

Pharmacology kategorisinde güncel sağlık bilgileri yer alıyor.

CONSCIOUS SEDATION

Conscious sedation, produced by the administration of certain medications, is an altered level of consciousness that still allows a patient to respond to physical stimulation and verbal commands, and to maintain an unassisted airway. The purpose of conscious sedation is to produce a state of relaxation and/or pain relief by using benzodiazepine- type and narcotic medications, …

H2 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS

Although the H2-receptor blockers are very safe drugs, they are capable of causing thrombocytopenia, a disorder in which there are too few platelets in the blood.
This deficiency may cause bleeding problems, since platelets are essential for blood clotting. Platelet deficiencies can only be recognized by blood tests; there are no symptoms that the patient can …

IMMUNOSUPPRESSANT DRUGS

Immunosuppressant drugs
Definition
Immunosuppressant drugs, which are also called anti-rejection drugs, are used to prevent the body from rejecting a transplanted organ.
Purpose
When an organ, such as a liver, heart or kidney, is transplanted from one person (the donor) into another (the recipient), the immune system of the recipient triggers the same response against the …

IMMUNOSUPPRESSANT DRUGS SPECIAL CONDITIONS

Special conditions
People who have certain diseases or disorders, or who are taking certain other medicines may have problems if they take immunosuppressant drugs.
Before taking these drugs, patients should inform the prescribing physician about any of the following conditions:
ALLERGIES. Anyone who has had unusual reactions to immunosuppressant drugs in the past should let his …

LAXATIVES PROMOTING BOWEL MOVEMENTS

Laxatives
Definition : Laxatives are products that promote bowel movements.
Purpose : Laxatives are used to treat constipation – the passage of small amounts of hard, dry stools, usually fewer than three times a week. Before recommending use of laxatives, differential diagnosis should be performed. Prolonged constipation may be evidence of a significant problem such as …

MUSCLE RELAXANTS

Muscle relaxants
Definition : Skeletal muscle relaxants are drugs that relax striated muscles (those that control the skeleton). They are a separate class of drugs from the muscle relaxant drugs used during intubations and surgery to reduce the need for anesthesia and facilitate intubation.
Purpose
Skeletal muscle relaxants may be used for relief of spasticity in …

NONSTEROIDAL ANTIINFLAMMATORY DRUGS

Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs
Definition : Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are medications other than corticosteroids that relieve pain, swelling, stiffness, and inflammation.
Purpose
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed for a variety of painful conditions, including arthritis, bursitis, tendinitis, gout, menstrual cramps, sprains, strains, and other injuries. They may be used for treatment of post-surgical pain that either …

PAIN MANAGEMENT

Pain management – definition
If pain can be defined as a highly unpleasant, individualized experience of one of the body’s defense mechanisms indicating an injury or problem, pain management encompasses all interventions used to understand and ease pain, and, if possible, to alleviate the cause of the pain.
Purpose
Pain serves to alert a person to …

PATIENT CONTROLLED ANALGESIA

Patient-controlled analgesia : Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is a means for the patient to self-administer analgesics (pain medications) intravenously by using a computerized pump, which introduces specific doses into an intravenous line. The purpose of PCA is improved pain control. The patient receives immediate delivery of pain medication without the need for a nurse to administer it. …

POSTSURGERY PAIN MANAGEMENT

Post-surgery pain management : In most hospitals during the past century, post-surgical pain management consisted only of the administration of analgesics and narcotics immediately after surgery. These drugs were usually given by intravenous or intramuscular injection, or by mouth. This is still a viable method for managing post-operative pain. Management of these drugs, nevertheless, has variant …

POSTSURGICAL PAIN MANAGEMENT

Post-surgical pain is a complex response to tissue trauma during surgery that stimulates hypersensitivity of the central nervous system. The result is pain in areas not directly affected by the surgical procedure. Post-operative pain may be experienced by an inpatient or outpatient. It can be felt after any surgical procedure, whether it is minor dental surgery …

SCOPOLAMINE PATCH

A scopolamine patch (Transdermal Scop or Transderm- V) is an adhesive medication patch that is applied to the skin behind the ear. The patch is treated with the belladonna alkaloid scopolamine, an anticholinergic drug that is a central nervous system depressant and an antiemetic. Scopolamine patches are prescribed to reduce postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) associated …