Sign up with your email address to be the first to know about new products, VIP offers, blog features & more.

Diagnostic Radiology

Diagnostic Radiology kategorisinde güncel sağlık bilgileri yer alıyor.

ABDOMINA TRAUMA DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY

ABDOMINAL TRAUMA
Blunt or penetrating trauma to the torso, frequently due to a road traffic accident (RTA) or other forms of accident or violence, is a frequent cause of referral to most accident and emergency departments, and forms the main indication for trauma ultrasound. Internal organ injury as a result of trauma is extremely difficult to …

ABDOMINAL AORTA AORTIC ANEURYSM

THE ABDOMINAL AORTA
The abdominal aorta can be visualized proximally in the midline, posterior to the left lobe of the liver. The coeliac axis and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) are easily demonstrated in longitudinal section (LS), arising from its anterior aspect. In transverse section (TS) the coeliac axis branches, the main hepatic and splenic arteries, may …

ABDOMINAL DIAGNOSTIC ULTRASOUND SCAN

Abdominal ultrasound (abdominal diagnostic ultrasound scan)
Definition
Abdominal ultrasound uses high frequency sound waves to produce two-dimensional images of the body’s soft tissues, which are used for a variety of clinical applications, including diagnosis and guidance of treatment procedures. Ultrasound does not use ionizing radiation to produce images, and, in comparison to other diagnostic imaging modalities, …

ABDOMINAL ULTRASOUND IMAGE OPTIMIZATION

Abdominal ultrasound image optimization :
Misinterpretation of ultrasound images is a significant risk in ultrasound diagnosis. Because ultrasound
scanning is operator-dependent, it is imperative that the sonographer has proper training in order to
achieve the expected diagnostic capabilities of the technique. The skill of effective scanning lies in the
operators ability to maximize the diagnostic information …

ACUTE ABDOMEN RADIOLOGICAL IMAGING

Acute abdomen radiological imaging : Ultrasound has an increasingly important role in the initial evaluation of the acute abdomen. Many trauma centres recognize the value of ultrasound as a first-line investigation in properly trained hands. Small portable scanners now offer bedside—even roadside—assessment that can speed the triage process, whereas higher-specification scanners enable the experienced operator to …

ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS CHRONIC CHOLECYSTITIS

INFLAMMATORY GALLBLADDER DISEASE
Cholecystitis is usually associated with gallstones; the frictional action of stones on the gallbladder wall causes some degree of inflammation in almost all cases. The inner mucosa of the wall is injured, allowing the access of enteric bacteria. The inflammatory process may be long-standing and chronic, acute or a combination of acute inflammation …

ACUTE PANCREATITIS ULTRASOUND

Acute pancreatitis – clinical features
Acute inflammation of the pancreas has a number of possible causes, but is most commonly associated with gallstones or alcoholism. Clinically it presents with severe epigastric pain, abdominal distension and nausea or vomiting. In milder cases, the patient may recover spontaneously. If allowed to progress untreated, peritonitis and other complications may …

ADRENAL GLANDS DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING

ADRENAL GLANDS
Normal appearances
In utero and postnatally, the adrenal glands are large, about one-third the size of the kidney, and composed mainly of the bulky, hypoechoic fetal cortex which makes up about 80% of the gland. The neonatal adrenal glands are easily demonstrated on ultrasound. The bulky fetal cortex is sonographically apparent as a thick …

ADRENAL GLANDS PATHOLOGY SCANNING

THE ADRENAL GLANDS
Normal appearances
The normal adrenal glands can be seen on ultrasound in the vast majority of patients, if you know where and how to look. Each adrenal gland is constructed with a central fold or ridge, which points anteromedially, from which extend two thin ‘wings’ of tissue—a medial and a lateral wing. The …

APPENDICITIS ULTRASOUND DIAGNOSIS

Appendicitis
Ultrasound is the first line of investigation for the child presenting with acute abdominal pain, where the diagnosis is uncertain following clinical assessment. The position of the appendix in small children may vary pointing upwards, downwards or to the patients left making the clinical diagnosis difficult, as the pain is not always confined to the …

APPENDIX ACUTE APPENDICITIS

Appendix
Acute appendicitis is a common diagnosis on admission to the casualty department with right lower abdominal pain. However around 15–25% of patients who undergo laparotomy turn out to have normal appendices. The use of ultrasound in the investigation of acute abdominal pain is well established and can increase the reliability of the diagnosis of acute …

BENIGN FOCAL RENAL TUMORS

BENIGN FOCAL RENAL TUMOURS – Angiomyolipoma
This is a homogeneous, highly echogenic, usually rounded lesion in the renal parenchyma containing blood vessels, muscle tissue and fat, as the name suggests. They are usually solitary, asymptomatic lesions, found incidentally on the scan, although the larger lesions can haemorrhage, causing haematuria and pain. Angiomyolipomas are also associated with …

BILE DUCTS DIAGNOSTIC ULTRASOUND

BILE DUCTS ULTRASOUND
The common duct can be easily demonstrated in its intrahepatic portion just anterior and slightly to the right of the portal vein. A cross-section of the main hepatic artery can usually be seen passing between the vein and the duct, although a small proportion of hepatic arteries lie anterior to the duct. At …

BILIARY STASIS HAEMOBILIA PNEUMOBILIA

ECHOGENIC BILE
Biliary stasis
Fine echoes in the bile within the gallbladder are not uncommon on an ultrasound scan. This is commonly due to the inspissation of bile following prolonged starving, for example following surgery. These appearances disappear after a normal diet is resumed and the gallbladder has emptied and refilled. It occurs when the solutes …

BUDD–CHIARI SYNDROME DIAGNOSIS

Budd–Chiari syndrome (BCS)
Budd–Chiari syndrome is the name given to the symptoms associated with partial or complete occlusion of the hepatic veins.
There are numerous causes of hepatic vein occlusion, of which the main ones are:
● congenital or acquired coagulation disorders, which may affect both the hepatic and portal veins (potentially treatable by liver transplant) …