' Urology '

Op. Dr. Ali GÜRTUNA On 25 Mar, 2012 At 09:34 PM | Kategori: Urology

Wilms' tumour : This is a rare childhood tumour, affecting 1 in 10,000 children. It represents 80% of all genitourinary tumours affecting children under 15 years. Males and females are equally affected. 20% are familial and 5% are bilateral. 75% present under the age of 5 years. Pathology and staging Wilms  tumour is a soft […]

Op. Dr. Ali GÜRTUNA On 25 Mar, 2012 At 09:25 PM | Kategori: Urology

Vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) Fistula: an abnormal communication between two epithelial surfaces, in the case of a VVF between bladder and vagina. In 10% there is a coexisting ureterovaginal fistula. Aetiology In developing countries, the majority are associated with obstructed or prolonged childbirth, causing tissue pressure necrosis between vagina and bladder. More rarely caused by schistosomiasis. […]

Op. Dr. Ali GÜRTUNA On 25 Mar, 2012 At 09:32 PM | Kategori: Urology

Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) in adults VUR is the retrograde flow of urine from the bladder into the upper urinary tract with or without dilatation of the ureter, renal pelvis, and calyces. It can cause symptoms and may lead to renal failure (reflux nephropathy). In the UK, 25% of patients requiring haemodialysis or transplantation do so […]

Op. Dr. Ali GÜRTUNA On 25 Mar, 2012 At 09:23 PM | Kategori: Urology

Vasectomy : This is the removal of a section of the vas deferens from each side with the aim of achieving infertility. Indications : A method of birth control Anaesthesia : Local or general Post-operative care and common post-operative complications and their management : Post-operative haematoma can occur. If large, evacuation may be required. Infection can occur, […]

Op. Dr. Ali GÜRTUNA On 25 Mar, 2012 At 09:27 PM | Kategori: Urology

Varicocele – Definition Dilatation of the veins of the pampiniform plexus of the spermatic cord. Prevalence Found in 15% of men in the general population and 40% of males presenting with infertility. Bilateral or unilateral (left side affected in 90%). Aetiology Incompetent values in the internal spermatic veins lead to retrograde blood flow, vessel dilatation, […]

Op. Dr. Ali GÜRTUNA On 25 Mar, 2012 At 09:31 PM | Kategori: Urology

The physiology of urine storage and micturition Urine storage During bladder filling, bladder pressure remains low despite a substantial increase in volume. The bladder is thus highly compliant. Its high compliance is partly due to the elastic properties (viscoelasticity) of the connective tissues of the bladder and partly due to the ability of detrusor smooth […]

Op. Dr. Ali GÜRTUNA On 25 Mar, 2012 At 09:28 PM | Kategori: Urology

Urine microscopy : Red blood cell morphology : Determined by phase-contrast microscopy. RBCs derived from the glomerulus are dysmorphic (they have been distorted by their passage through the glomerulus). RBCs derived from tubular bleeding (tubulointerstitial disease) and those from lower down the urinary tract (i.e. urological bleeding from the renal pelvis, ureters, or bladder) have […]

Op. Dr. Ali GÜRTUNA On 25 Mar, 2012 At 09:15 PM | Kategori: Urology

Urine examination : Dipstick testing :Analysis for pH, blood, protein, glucose, and white cells can be done with dipstick testing. pH : Urinary pH varies between 4.5 to 8, averaging between 5.5 and 6.5. Blood : Normal urine contains <3 RBCs per high-powered field (~1000 erythrocytes/ml of urine; upper limit of 5000 8000 erythrocytes/ml). +ve […]

Op. Dr. Ali GÜRTUNA On 25 Mar, 2012 At 09:53 PM | Kategori: Urology

Urine cytology : – Urine collection for cytology Exfoliated cells lying in urine which has been in the bladder for several hours (e.g. early morning specimens) or in a urine specimen that has been allowed to stand for several hours, are degenerate. Such urine specimens are not suitable for cytological interpretation. Cytological examination can be […]

Op. Dr. Ali GÜRTUNA On 25 Mar, 2012 At 09:26 PM | Kategori: Urology

Urinary tract ultrasound – Renal : – Assessment of haematuria – Determination of nature of renal masses can differentiate simple cysts (smooth, well-demarcated wall, reflecting no echoes; benign) from solid masses (almost always malignant; cystic masses with solid components or multiple septae or calcification may be malignant), from those casting an acoustic shadow (stones) – Can […]

Sayfa 1 - 1312345...Son »