' Pediatric Surgery '

Op. Dr. Ali GÜRTUNA On 25 Mar, 2012 At 01:03 PM | Kategori: Pediatric Surgery

Preoperative pain management in newborns : The practice of medicine has become progressively more sophisticated. Physicians can now achieve the goal of facilitating the healing process while simultaneously minimizing or even eliminating the pain once thought necessary to achieve this goal. Adults were the first to benefit from these advances. Only within the last 2 […]

Op. Dr. Ali GÜRTUNA On 23 Mar, 2012 At 11:57 PM | Kategori: Pediatric Surgery

Wilms Tumor : This is the most common solid intra-abdominal tumor (malignant) in children. It affects 450-500 children annually in the USA. Neuroblastoma is most common, but they are not all confined to the abdomen. It has a peak incidence at 3-5 years of age. Present as abdominal or flank mass with abdominal pain, asymptomatic […]

Op. Dr. Ali GÜRTUNA On 23 Mar, 2012 At 11:05 PM | Kategori: Pediatric Surgery

Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) Definition : VUR results from abnormal retrograde flow of urine from the bladder into the upper urinary tract. Epidemiology Overall incidence in children is >10%; younger > older; girls > boys (female:male ratio 5:1); Caucasian >Afro-Carribean. Siblings of an affected child have a 40% risk of reflux, and routine screening of siblings […]

Op. Dr. Ali GÜRTUNA On 23 Mar, 2012 At 11:10 PM | Kategori: Pediatric Surgery

Urinary tract infection (UTI) Definitions : UTI is a bacterial infection of the urine (>105 colony-forming units/ml of urine), which may involve the bladder (cystitis) or kidney (pyelonephritis). Classification Children may be asymptomatic or symptomatic. It may be the first (intial) infection, or recurrent UTI due to persistence of the causative organism and re-infection, or […]

Op. Dr. Ali GÜRTUNA On 23 Mar, 2012 At 11:18 PM | Kategori: Pediatric Surgery

Ureterocele Definition A ureterocele is a cystic dilatation of the distal ureter as it drains into the bladder. Incidence Females are affected more than males (female:male ratio 4:1). They predominantly affect Caucasians. 80% are associated with the upper pole of a duplex system, although they can be found in single systems (more commonly in adults). […]

Op. Dr. Ali GÜRTUNA On 23 Mar, 2012 At 11:28 PM | Kategori: Pediatric Surgery

In the initial evaluation a history should be obtained for bleeding disorders, skin lesions, and aspirin or steroid ingestion. The physical exam for presence of enlarged liver, spleen, masses, ascites, or evidence of trauma or portal hypertension. Labs such as bleeding studies and endoscopy, contrast studies if bleeding stops. Common causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding […]

Op. Dr. Ali GÜRTUNA On 23 Mar, 2012 At 11:32 PM | Kategori: Pediatric Surgery

The undescended testis is a term we use to describe all instances in which the testis cannot be manually manipulated into the scrotum. The testes form from the medial portion of the urogenital ridge extending from the diaphragm into the pelvis. In arrested descent, they may be found from the kidneys to the internal inguinal […]

Op. Dr. Ali GÜRTUNA On 23 Mar, 2012 At 11:38 PM | Kategori: Pediatric Surgery

Undescended testes : The testes descend into the scrotum in the 3rd trimester (passing through the inguinal canal at 24 – 28 weeks). Failure of testicular descent results in cryptorchidism (or undescended testes). Incidence 3% at birth (unilateral > bilateral). ~80% will spontaneously descend by 3 months. The incidence at 1 year is 1%. Classification […]

Op. Dr. Ali GÜRTUNA On 23 Mar, 2012 At 11:31 PM | Kategori: Pediatric Surgery

Umbilical Hernias : Between the sixth and tenth gestational week, the developing gastrointestinal tract is partially extruded into the umbilical cord with return into the abdomen by the tenth week. By the time of birth, the umbilical ring has become entirely closed by the developing abdominal wall except for the space occupied by the cord, […]

Op. Dr. Ali GÜRTUNA On 23 Mar, 2012 At 11:44 PM | Kategori: Pediatric Surgery

Thyroid Cancer : In spite of presenting with advanced, multicentric and larger tumors children have a better survival than adults. Populations at risk: past radiation to head and neck, nuclear waste radiation, MEN II kindred. Clinical presentation is a solitary cervical mass or metastatic lymph node. Diagnostic work-up should include: sonogram (cystic or solid), thyroid […]

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